The full term is “-nicotinamide mononucleotide,” which is a physiologically active nucleotide that occurs naturally. NMN comes in two irregular forms: α and β. β isomer has a molecular weight of 334.221 g/mol and is the active form. Because nicotinamide is a vitamin B3 derivative, NMN is classified as a vitamin B derivative. It’s engaged in a lot of biochemical events in the human body and has a lot to do with immunity and metabolism.
The World Health Organization (WHO) issued the 11th version of the International Classification of Diseases in June 2018, which included aging for the first time. 1 The recognition of aging as a disease opens the door to fresh research into innovative therapies to prevent or treat age-related diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular and metabolic disease, and neurodegeneration. 2,3 Nutrient sensing systems, such as mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) for regulating protein synthesis and cell development, and AMPK (activated protein kinase) for sensing low energy conditions, have been a hot topic of research.
A rise in intracellular NAD+ levels initiates survival-enhancing changes across the kingdom of life, including increased energy generation and upregulation of cellular repair. 5 In reality, aging is defined as a “cascade of robustness breakdown initiated by a reduction in systemic NAD+ production and the resulting functional impairments in vulnerable organs and tissues.”
Our NAD+ levels have dropped to half of what they were in our youth by the time we reach middle age. 9 Increasing NAD+ levels improve insulin sensitivity, reverse mitochondrial dysfunction, and extend longevity, according to several studies. The medication raises NAD+ levels by activating enzymes that drive NAD+ production, blocking a degrading enzyme (CD38), and supplementing with NAD precursors such as nicotinamide riboside(NR) and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN).
Specifications of the Nicotinamide Mononucleotide
Following are the main specification points of the Nicotinamide Monocleotide:
- C11H15N2O8P (Molecular Formula)
- 221 g/mol molecular weight
- 214-136-5 EINECS No.
- China is the country of origin (Mainland)
- Vitamins, Amino Acids, and Coenzymes are examples of immune function agents.
- Food Grade is the standard.
- ZABCBIO is a trademark of ZABCBIO.
- ABC108 is the model number.
- 6 percent purity HPLC was used to conduct the test.
- 2-year shelf life with proper storage
- 10 PPM for heavy metals
- White crystalline powder with a crystalline appearance.
- COA: Available
How Does the Body Produce the Nicotinamide Mononucleotide?
The body produces NMN from B vitamins. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase is the enzyme that produces NMN in the human body (NAMPT). NAMPT binds nicotinamide (vitamin B3) to PRPP (5′-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate), a sugar-phosphate. A phosphate group can also be added to ‘nicotinamide riboside’ (NR) to produce NMN.
In the synthesis of NAD+, the enzyme ‘NAMPT’ is the rate-limiting enzyme. As a result of decreasing NAMPT levels, NMN production decreases, resulting in lower NAD+ levels. NAD+ synthesis can also be sped up by adding precursor molecules like NMN.
Methods for Enhancing the Levels of NMN Concentration in the Human Body
There are various methods to increases the levels of NMN in the human body. One of the most famous methods of producing NMN concentration in the human body is calorie restriction.
1. Calorie Restriction Method
Calorie restriction, often known as fasting or calorie restriction, has been found to enhance NAD+ levels and sirtuin activity. Calorie restriction has been demonstrated to delay the aging process in mice via increasing NAD+ and sirtuin activity. Although certain meals contain NAD+, the quantities are insufficient to influence intracellular concentrations. NAD+ levels have been observed to rise when certain supplements, such as NMN, are taken.
2. Supplements of NMN for Enhancing Levels of NMN Concentration in Human Body
It is a fact that the intracellular concentrations of NAD+ decline with age. Supplementing with NAD+ precursors is considered to restore healthy NAD+ levels. Precursors such as NMN and nicotinamide riboside (NR) are thought to be supplements to NAD+ biosynthesis, boosting NAD+ concentrations. “Feeding or giving NAD+ directly to organisms is not a feasible option,” says David Sinclair, a Harvard NAD+ researcher.
Because the NAD+ molecule can’t easily pass cell membranes to enter cells, it can’t impact metabolism in a favorable way. To enhance bioavailable amounts of NAD+, precursor molecules to NAD+ must be utilized instead. ” As a result, NAD+ cannot be used as a supplement since it is poorly absorbed. NAD+ precursors are more easily absorbed and effective supplements than NAD+.
How Does The NMN Concentration Get Absorbed or Distributed into the Human Body?
A molecular transporter anchored on the cell surface appears to be responsible for NMN absorption. Because the NMN molecule is smaller than NAD+, it may be taken more effectively into cells. Because of the barrier posed by the cell membrane, NAD+ cannot easily enter the body. A waterless gap in the membrane inhibits ions, polar molecules, and big molecules from passing through without the usage of transporters.
NMN was previously considered to require modification before entering cells, but new data shows that it can enter cells directly via an NMN-specific transporter in the cellular membrane.
In addition, NMN injections raise NAD+ levels in a variety of bodily organs, including the pancreas, adipose tissue, the heart, skeletal muscle, kidneys, testes, eyes, and blood vessels. In mice, oral administration of NMN causes a 15-minute rise in NAD+ in the liver.
The function of the Nicotinamide Mononucleotide
NAD+ is particularly important in metabolic activities including glycolysis, the TCA cycle (also known as the Krebs Cycle or Citric Acid Cycle), and the electron transport chain, which takes place in our mitochondria and is how we get cellular energy.
NAD+ binds to enzymes and transfers electrons between molecules in its capacity as a ligand. NAD+ operates through a cellular process comparable to recharging a battery by transferring electrons from one molecule to the next. Electrons are the atomic foundation for cellular energy. When electrons are used to provide energy, a battery gets drained. Without a boost, those electrons will not be able to return to their starting location. NAD+ functions as a booster in cells. NAD+ can reduce or enhance enzyme activity, gene expression, and cell signaling in this way.
NAD+ is formed when NMN is converted to it, and it has several positive impacts on the cell, including mitochondrial function, DNA repair, gene expression, anti-inflammation, and cell survival. The natural precursor of NAD+ is NMN (Nicotinamide Mononucleotide). It aims at supplementing with NMN increases DAN+, which is important for overall health and longevity, as well as offering other health advantages. The following are seven of NMN’s most important advantages.
- Supports Anti-Aging
- Heart Health
- Cognitive Support
- Energy & Metabolism Support
- Weight Control
- Boosts Cellular Levels
- Cell Repair
These are the main functions of Nicotinamide Mononucleotide medicine. There are also some other functions of the NMN medication. Niacin, also known as icotinamide riboside, or niagen, is an alternate form of vitamin B3.
Nicotinamide riboside, like other forms of vitamin B3, is metabolized by the body into nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), a coenzyme or helper molecule. NAD+ serves as a source of energy for a variety of biological activities, including:
- Food to energy conversion
- Repairing DNA damage
- Increasing the effectiveness of cells’ defensive mechanisms
- Changing your body’s internal clock, often known as the circadian rhythm
- However, as you become older, the quantity of NAD+ in your body gradually decreases.
Method of production
In this section, we are going to explain the production method of the NMN Supplier.
Niacinamide ribose chloride is synthesized first and then fermented to generate NMN. From start to finish, NMN is made chemically in a synthetic manner.
What Is NMN Medication?
Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) is a naturally occurring chemical found in all living things. At the molecular level, it is a ribonucleotide, which is the nucleic acid RNA’s fundamental structural unit. The molecule is made up of a nicotinamide group, a ribose group, and a phosphate group (Figure 1). NMN is a critical component in increasing NAD+ levels in cells since it is a direct precursor of the important chemical nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+).
NAD+ is a coenzyme that is necessary for life and cellular activities. Enzymes function as catalysts, allowing biological processes to take place. Coenzymes are ‘assistant’ molecules that enable enzymes to operate.
Apart from water, NAD+ is the most prevalent molecule in the body, and without it, an organism would perish. Many proteins in the body, including the sirtuins that repair damaged DNA, need NAD+. It’s also crucial for mitochondria, which are the cell’s powerhouses and provide the chemical energy that our bodies require.
What is the Recommended Dosage of the NMN Medication?
Dose for Human Consumption Recommendation
Increased NAD+ levels have been demonstrated in animal experiments to cure a variety of age-related ailments such as heart disease, diabetes, and neurodegeneration. Boosting the chemical even made yeast, worms, and mice live longer. The capacity of NMN to increase NAD+ levels in animals and its health-promoting qualities prompted researchers to believe in the molecule’s medicinal potential. Scientists are now conducting clinical trials to determine whether NMN is safe, how much we should take, and how it affects our bodies.
Nicotinamide riboside, often known as niagen, is a kind of nicotinamide that comes in tablet or capsule form. People sell it in certain health-food stores, on Amazon, and through other internet sellers.
Niagen supplements generally include only nicotinamide riboside, however, some producers mix it with additional substances including Pterostilbene, a polyphenol that is structurally related to resveratrol and acts as an antioxidant. Most niagen supplement companies recommend taking 250–300 mg per day, which varies between 1–2 capsules per day.
Presupposed Benefits of the NMN Supplier
Once within an animal’s cells, NMN stimulates the synthesis of NAD+, a molecule that gives energy to cells and is considered to be important for healthy aging. NAD+ is also important for the activation of proteins that protect our DNA’s integrity. The potential advantages of NMN extend to virtually all bodily systems due to its important involvement in so many cellular functions. Some of the more well-known benefits of NMN suppliers are included here.
1. Promotes Blood Flow and Vascular Health
Our skeletal muscles are responsible for movement, stability, and strength. These muscles must consume large amounts of essential energy molecules like glucose and fatty acids to be strong and in excellent shape. Our muscles require a continuous supply of NAD+s building components, such as NMN, in order to digest these molecules.
The researchers had proven in mice that it protects against a variety of aging-related health issues, including blood vessel stiffness, oxidative stress, our cells’ capacity to divide, and even changes in how active our genes are, known as gene expression.
2. Reduces the Obesity Risk
Obesity is related to a slew of harmful diseases and is notoriously difficult to cure. Obesity and associated diseases such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome have no simple cure. While lifestyle changes such as regular exercise and a nutritious diet are essential, every little thing helps.
3. Assists In the Prevention of Heart Disease
At the very least, your skeletal muscles receive a rest. Your heart can’t stop beating, and it can’t even slow down considerably without creating major complications. As a result, the heart’s energy need is enormous. And it has to generate as much NAD+ as it can to stay going. Because of this, heart cells require a constant supply of NMN.
4. Improves the Mitochondrial Function
Simply, our mitochondria are essential to our survival. The cell’s powerhouses are these one-of-a-kind cellular structures. They transform chemicals from the food we ingest into energy for our cells. This mechanism relies heavily on NAD+. In fact, mitochondrial abnormalities induced by NAD+ deficiency may influence neurological diseases like Alzheimer’s. NMN supplementation has been demonstrated to improve several mitochondrial dysfunctions in mouse studies.
5. DNA Repair is Important.
The NAD+ produced by NMN activates a family of proteins known as sirtuins. Sirtuins, sometimes known as the “guardians of our health,” play an important role in protecting DNA integrity. When our cells divide, the DNA at the ends of our chromosomes gets a little shorter. This, at some point, begins to harm our DNA. Sirtuins inhibit this process by maintaining the telomeres, which are the last pieces of DNA. Sirtuins, on the other hand, rely on NAD+ to operate. According to recent research, feeding mice NMN activated sirtuins and resulted in more stable telomeres.
6. Improves Muscle Endurance and Strength
Researchers gave mice NMN for long periods of time as it had superior energy metabolism with no evident adverse effects, according to studies. As we age and our supply of NAD+ declines, the health of our muscles becomes increasingly essential.
Other Potential Advantages
Nicotinamide Riboside may also have the following advantages:
- Aiding in the Weight Loss:Nicotinamide riboside helped mice’s metabolism speed up, which may help them lose weight. However, it’s unknown whether or not it would have the same impact on people, or how strong it is.
- Cancer risk may be reduced: High levels of NAD+ protect against DNA damage and oxidative stress, both of which have been associated with the development of cancer.
- Helps Treating the Jet Leg:NAD+ aids in the regulation of your body’s internal clock, thus taking niagen may aid in the treatment of jet lag or other circadian rhythm problems by resetting your internal clock (26Trusted Source).
- Healthy muscle aging may be promoted:In elderly mice, increasing NAD+ levels improved muscular function, strength, and endurance.
Are There Any Risks Associated with the NMN Medication?
Supplementing with NMN Has Side Effects
Nicotinamide riboside is expected to be relatively safe, with few if any side effects. Taking 1,000–2,000 mg per day exhibited no negative effects in human trials. The majorities of human research, on the other hand, are brief and include a small number of participants. More thorough human investigations are needed to have a better sense of its safety.
Nausea, tiredness, headaches, diarrhea, stomach discomfort, and indigestion have all been described as mild to moderate adverse effects. Taking 300 mg per kilogram of body weight (136 mg per pound) daily for 90 days exhibited no negative effects in animals. Moreover, unlike vitamin B3 (niacin) supplements, nicotinamide riboside should not induce flushing of the face.
There are potential risks attached to the NMN medication. There have been no reports of nicotinamide mononucleotide side effects in humans too far. The bulk of NMN research has been done in rats, and the results have shown that it has favorable benefits on metabolism, brain function, liver, skin, muscle, bone structure, heart health, reproduction, immunity, and lifespan. Throughout the 12-month intervention period, long-term mouse research revealed no toxicity, severe adverse effects, or higher death rate.
A single human trial of NMN found no safety issues after single oral dosages of 100, 250, and 500 mg. Scientists discovered no changes in heart rate, blood pressure, blood oxygen levels, or body temperature five hours after a single oral dose of NMN. Except for the quantities of four molecules in the blood, which were within normal ranges, laboratory examinations of blood revealed no noteworthy alterations. This research also looked at sleep quality before and after NMN use and found no changes.
Discussion on the Safety of the NMN
In Japan, an international team of researchers conducted the first human clinical trial for NMN to determine the molecule’s safety. Despite the modest size of the Phase one clinical trial, the results revealed that oral NMN doses up to 500mg are safe in people, suggesting a possible treatment approach. The findings were published in the journal Endocrine in November of this year.
The safety of NMN as a dietary supplement has been demonstrated in several FDA-approved clinical studies.
NMN’s safety and efficacy are also being investigated in other clinical trials registered with the World Health Organization (WHO). In the United States, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine are conducting a clinical trial with a daily dose of 250mg of NMN to see how it affects cardiovascular and metabolic health. Another clinical trial is being conducted at Boston’s Brigham and Women’s Hospital to see how the supplement affects the body and if there are any negative effects.
Although further study is needed to identify the optimal human dosage, clinical trials of various NAD boosters have indicated that 1 gram of oral supplement taken once a day can promote NAD+ metabolism in healthy middle-aged and older individuals.
Although scientific trials are still ongoing, some experts are convinced enough in NAD+’s anti-aging advantages that they are taking supplements.
On The Joe Rogan Experience podcast, David Sinclair, a Harvard professor who researches aging, discussed how to stay healthy and avoid aging by taking NMN. Sinclair takes 1 gram of NMN per day, along with resveratrol, metformin, and aspirin, among other supplements. When asked if the supplements had any drawbacks, Sinclair replied he hasn’t had any other than stomach distress so far, and that “anything is better than what’s coming” – aging.
Thus, we may infer that it is quite safe to take the NMN for preventing the aging effects. This will be the fountain of youth, which would give back people the youth once again.
The National Museum of Natural History has rendered NMN as unmistakably a murine spring of youth. What about people, though? According to Shin-ichiro Imai, NMN may enhance adult human metabolism, making it similar to that of someone 10 or twenty years younger. 34 His research group is presently looking at NMN in people. Human studies are also being conducted by David Sinclair, a prominent anti-aging researcher at Harvard University who is known for his work on resveratrol, NAD+, and sirtuins. He takes NMN personally and claims that his lipid profile has improved substantially, he feels more energetic, and his blood indicators are closer to those of a 31-year-old at nearly 60 years old.
The delivery route for oral NMN is an intriguing question: the EVs that carry the chemical via plasma in the body are liposomes. As science progresses in its understanding of the holy grail of reversing aging, a liposomal form of NMN may likely mirror the body’s natural transport mechanism, increasing absorption and delivery.
Why Should We Remain Concerned About the NMN Medication?
NAD+ has been on scientists’ radar since its discovery in 1906 because of its abundance in the body and critical function in biochemical pathways that keep our bodies operating. Raising NAD+ levels in the body has shown encouraging effects in animal studies in domains such as metabolic and age-related illness, as well as anti-aging characteristics. Diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dementia, and general immune system declines are all age-related disorders.
Association of the NMN Medicine with Health Conditions
Following are some of the major health conditions that can be treated by the NMN medication:
Metabolic Disorders and NMN Medicine
One of the most important factors in sustaining good mitochondrial functioning and consistent energy production is NAD+. The amount of NAD+ in the body decreases with age and a high-fat diet. NAD+ boosters have been proven in studies to reduce diet-related and age-related weight gain in mice, as well as enhance their exercise ability, even in elderly animals. Other research has even reversed the diabetic impact in female mice, pointing to new ways to combat metabolic diseases like obesity.
Neurodegeneration and the NMN Medicine
Raising the NAD+ level in Alzheimer’s mice improves cognitive performance by reducing protein buildup that impairs cell communication in the brain. When there is an insufficient blood supply to the brain, increasing NAD+ levels protects brain cells from dying. Many animal research has shown novel possibilities for assisting the brain in aging healthily, preventing neurodegeneration, and boosting memory.
The function of the Heart and the NMN Medication
Increasing NAD+ levels protects and enhances the heart’s functioning. High blood pressure can lead to an enlarged heart and clogged arteries, both of which can result in strokes. NAD+ boosters restored NAD+ levels in the heart and avoided cardiac damage induced by a shortage of blood flow in rats. NAD+ supplements have also been found to protect mice against aberrant cardiac enlargement in other investigations.
Immune System and the NMN Medication
As individuals become older, their immune systems deteriorate, they become more susceptible to disease, and it becomes more difficult to recover from illnesses like the seasonal flu or even COVID-19. NAD+ levels are thought to play an essential role in controlling inflammation and cell survival throughout the immune response and aging, according to recent research. The study highlighted NAD+’s therapeutic potential in the treatment of immunological dysfunction.
Aging and the NMN Medicine
NAD+ is the energy source for sirtuins, which helps them maintain genomic integrity and facilitate DNA repair. The activation of sirtuins requires NAD+, much as a car cannot move without gas. According to animal research, increasing the body’s NAD+ level activates sirtuins and extends the lifetime of yeast, worms, and mice. Although animal research has yielded promising anti-aging outcomes, scientists are currently investigating how these findings may be applied to people.
The History of the NMN Medication
NAD, or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, is one of the body’s most essential and versatile chemicals. NAD is required for nearly every biological function since it is essential for delivering energy to cells. As a result, NAD is the subject of a lot of biological studies.
In 1906, Arthur Harden and William John Young identified a “factor” in brewer’s yeast juice that aided sugar fermentation into alcohol. That “factor,” at the time referred to as a “coferment,” turned out to be NAD.
Harden and Hans von Euler-Chelpin continued to dissect the enigmas of fermentation. In 1929, they were awarded the Nobel Prize for providing a comprehensive knowledge of these processes, including the chemical structure and characteristics of what would become known as NAD.
Under the direction of another Nobel winner, Otto Warburg, who identified NAD’s key function in enabling numerous biological events, the narrative of NAD grew in the 1930s. NAD, according to Warburg, acts as a biological conduit for electrons.
The three metabolic processes by which nicotinic acid is transformed to NAD were discovered by Jack Preiss and Philip Handler in 1958. Many reputable and honorable researchers had concluded result that nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) offers the energy that needed a key nuclear enzyme for its activation in 1963. Rechsteiner and his colleagues discovered strong evidence that NAD+ had “some other significant function” in mammalian cells, in addition to its traditional biochemical activity as an energy transfer molecule, in 1976.
This discovery enabled Leonard Guarantee and his colleagues to uncover those proteins known as sirtuins that use NAD to increase longevity by keeping particular genes “silent” in different ways. The researcher’s interest has grown considerably in the NAD as well as its other intermediary – the NMN and NR. These are the elements that help in treating age-related health problems.
The Future Research or Nicotinamide Mononucleotide
Researchers are trying to figure out how NMN works in the human body because of its potential therapeutic effects in animal studies. In a recent clinical trial in Japan, the molecule was shown to be safe and well-tolerated at the dosage utilized. There will be further research and human trials shortly. It’s a fascinating and adaptable chemical from which we can still learn a lot.
Nicotinamide riboside looks to be a relatively safe substance with minimal side effects. However, the long-term consequences of this substance on people are yet unclear. The majority of nicotinamide riboside manufacturers recommend consuming 250–300 mg each day. Nicotinamide riboside is a vitamin B3 substitute that has low side effects. It’s frequently advertised as an anti-aging treatment.
It is converted by your body into NAD+, which provides energy to all of your cells. While NAD+ levels normally decline with age, increasing them may help to reverse numerous symptoms of aging.
The majority of research on nicotinamide riboside and NAD+, however, is conducted in animals. Before it may be recommended as a therapy, more high-quality human trials are needed. Our Company is also testing the medication. Once we are certain about the results of NMN medicine, our Company would get the certification and introduce the product in the market.